عنوان مقاله [English]
"Advocacy Planning" as a term was coined by Paul Davidoff in his mid-1960s article in he AIP journal. Being introduced in 1960s, the approach enjoyed vast popularity in 1970s, and its refined version was put into effect in USA and UK then after. The core of Davidoff idea is that different social groups shall be able to suggest alternative development plans for regions, cities, and neighborhoods. These plans may compete with each other so that the best one would be selected. Davidoff argues: if , as it has often being claimed, planning is a rational technocratic process, then all of alternative plans should be the same .But this is not the case .In practice, plans are meaningfully different because planning is primarily a political procedure, reflecting preferences of various social groups.
By acknowledging pluralism in planning, Davidoff believes that planners should act as advocates of urban or rural communities, vocational or ethnic groups, cities, regions etc. He or she should accept values, interests and preferences of the client social group.
Advocacy planning has been criticized seriously. The main criticism is about the contradictory role of a planner: what is his or her main task? Taking care of the community interests, broader group's interests or professional rules or norms which somehow reflect interests of more people. Furthermore, advocacy planners have been accused of diverting communities from more radical forms of social change. Some other criticizes advocacy planners as they rarely are the real representatives of their client communities.